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ConnectBot: Authenticate with a SSH key

First, make sure openssh-server is installed on the machine you want to connect

Generate the key

Launch ConnectBot, hit the Menu key and select Manage Pubkeys. Hit Menu → Generate.

Give your key a nickname.

Then choose encryption type. Default RSA 1024 bits should be good enough.

You now have the choice to set a password or not. You can leave it blank, but you have to know that a SSH key without password is like a bank card without PIN code; if anyone gains access to your phone or at least to your private key, he would be able to connect to every server where your public key is installed.

Check Load key on start if you want.

Press Generate and move your finger around the box to gather randomness.

Add your key on the server

Your key is now created. Long press on its name and choose Copy public key. Log in to the server (with your password) and type the following command:

$ echo "your public key" >> .ssh/authorized_keys

To paste your key using ConnectBot, tap on Menu → Paste. Don't forget the quotes.